Fidel Castro paradoxes not black, white

JESSE L. JACKSON SR. | 12/12/2016, 7:01 a.m.
Fidel Castro, Cuba’s leader for almost six decades, has died at 90 in Havana. USA Today’s headline last Monday read, ...
Jesse Louis Jackson Sr., founder and president of the Rainbow PUSH Coalition

Rainbow PUSH Organization

Fidel Castro, Cuba’s leader for almost six decades, has died at 90 in Havana. USA Today’s headline last Monday read, No Mourning in Miami, noting the continued bitterness of those who left Cuba. The Washington Post featured testimonies condemning Castro’s authoritarian government. A revolutionary, a brutal dictator who sided with the USSR in the Cold War, a sponsor of guerilla wars, leader of a failed economy – Castro’s death has unleashed the full indictment against him.

We need a broader view, a more clear-eyed analysis of the man and his times. Why was this leader of a small island nation 90 miles off our coast celebrated across Africa and Latin America? How could he survive the determined efforts of the U.S. government to oust him, outlasting 11 American presidents? Why did Nelson Mandela praise and thank him?

Castro led the Cuban Revolution against a brutal dictator to victory in 1959. Always more a devotee of Marti – the Cuban poet and patriot who led the revolt against Spain – than of Marx, Castro set out to nationalize foreign companies that owned and dominated most of the island, implement land reform, expand schools and clinics and set Cuba on an independent course.

There were victims of the revolution, for whom we continue to seek family unification. Some elites and some common people fled the turmoil of revolution. Relations with the U.S. quickly soured. John Kennedy signed off on the “covert” Bay of Pigs invasion by a CIA-organized and trained army of Cuban exiles. They were defeated easily, and the CIA never forgave Castro for the embarrassment. The U.S. launched multiple assassination attempts, enforced an economic embargo and tried various ways to sabotage the Cuban economy. Cut off from the hemisphere, Castro turned to the Soviet Union, which supplied oil and aid. The U.S. strangled and starved him into strength.

Castro’s defiance and pride consolidated the hatred of U.S. governing circles. He exported doctors and teachers while the U.S. exported weapons and war. Across the world – and in parts of the U.S. – Castro was and is celebrated. He stood with Africans against European imperialism and South African apartheid. He stood with Latin Americans against Yankee domination and corrupt local regimes. He dispatched doctors across the world to non-aligned nations, earning friends and saving lives. In 1975, he launched an audacious airlift of Cuban troops to repel the South African invasion of Angola, marking the beginning of the end for apartheid. He celebrated Mandela while the U.S. government was supporting the apartheid government and labeling Mandela a terrorist.

In 1959, Castro came to the United Nations in New York City. He chose to stay in the Hotel Teresa in Harlem and met with Malcolm X, acts scorned as a publicity stunt. But in 1959, African Americans couldn’t stay in White hotels across the South. We lived under the American version of apartheid. Neighborhoods across the country were redlined by race.

Castro was the first Cuban leader to recognize his country’s large Black population, descended from slaves, and to help integrate them into national life. Castro’s embrace of civil rights was an electric message across the Black community in the U.S.